Beef and Liberty! A comparison of English and French cuisine and the rise of English national identity in the eighteenth century by Rachel Cairnes
The rivalry between England and France is undoubtedly one of the greatest themes of the eighteenth century. For the English, the phrase ‘Beef and Liberty’ became a rallying call for those concerned about the threat of a French military invasion from abroad, and the spread of Gallic luxury perverting English values at home. This writing will explore the growth of English national identity as a response to rivalry with France, how it was expressed through the consumption of beef, and held in contrast to French cuisine.